The 8th IC-MSQUARE will be held at the Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences at Bratislava. Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences (SAS) was originally founded as Cabinet of Physics SAS on October 1, 1955. Professor D. Ilkovič, the co-worker of the Nobel Prize winner Prof. Heyrovský, was the director during the initial period. In 1957 the Cabinet was transformed into the Laboratory of Physics SAS and finally in 1963, Institute of Physics SAS was established.
The Institute is primarily aimed at experimental and theoretical research in physics. Close collaboration with many research institutions in Slovakia and abroad has been established during the existence of the Institute. The Institute provides scientific education for graduate students to obtain Ph.D. degree and for undergraduate students to prepare their diploma thesis.
From the very beginning of its existence, the research teams concentrated their efforts on solid state physics and nuclear and subnuclear physics. In particular, the mass and charge transfer as well as mechanical and thermal properties of solids were studied. In nuclear physics, original results were achieved in the study of nuclear reactions induced by fast neutrons, activation analysis, and pre-equilibrium model of nuclear reactions. Much work was devoted to the development of the technology and theory of amorphous rapidly quenched metals, transport properties of crystalline solids. The theoretical problems of high energy and elementary particle physics were worked out. Electroacoustics and psychoacoustics studies were also subjects of research in the past.
Current research at the Institute focuses on condensed matter physics (rapidly quenched materials, multilayers, semiconductors, theory of low dimensional systems), nuclear physics (nuclear structure, mechanism of nuclear reactions,positron utilization), subnuclear physics (phenomenology of high energy collisions, nonperturbative QCD, properties of hadron spectra) and quantum information. The Institute is involved in a broad scientific collaboration within European scientific projects and cooperates closely with world most famous research centers (e.g. JINR Dubna, GSI Darmstadt, ESRF Grenoble, DESY Hamburg, CERN Geneve, ICTP Trieste, etc.).
Route to Venue: The bus stop from the city center is Patronka (marked as A in the map). The following lines stop at Patronka bus and troleybus stop:
PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Tickets for public transport are valid for a certain period of time and are available from ticket-machines or kiosks. They must be validated once inside the tram/bus. Tickets are valid for all means of public transport in the city and remain valid when changing from one means of transport to another. Tickets have a minimum validity of 15 minutes and the longest is 7 days. Find schedules, journey planners, routes and tickets at imhd.sk.
BRATISLAVA TOURIST CARD: If you plan to stay in the city for one, two or three days, there is nothing quite as practical and advantageous as the City Card. It entitles you to free of charge urban transport, a guided tour in the Old Town, 10-20% discount on admission fees to museums, galleries, as well as taxi and car-hire. The card can be purchased from any of the tourist information centres.
TRAMS: Trams are the most popular and fastest form of public transport in the city. They are reliable and on time and generally run from 5 a.m 11:30 p.m. Find schedules, journey planners, routes and tickets at imhd.sk.
BUSES: Buses also play a substantial role in the public transport system. Limited- stop services run on the longer routes through the city. After midnight, night buses operate in Bratislava at roughly one hour intervals. Find schedules, journey planners, routes and tickets at imhd.sk.
TROLLEY-BUSES: Some routes in the city centre, mainly in its hilly parts, are electrified and serviced by trolley- buses. They have a long tradition in Bratislava and have been operating here for more than 100 years. Find schedules, journey planners, routes and tickets at imhd.sk.
Bratislava Airport (BTS).
There are direct flights to a number of destinations in Europe and a number of airlines operate their direct routes to Bratislava – RYANAIR, Pobeda, flydubai, Czech Airlines, Wizz Air. Bratislava airport can be reached from the city centre in 15–20 minutes. A taxi to the city centre costs around EUR 15. If you travel on the budget, take the bus no. 61 to the main train station. From here, you can walk to the city centre in 15 minutes or take bus no 93 (2-3 bus stops). Bus tickets are available from ticket machines at bus stops or in kiosks. The tickets which cost around EUR 1 must be validated in the buses.
Official website: www.bts.aero
There is a regular connection between the International Airport of Vienna (Austria) and Bratislava city center by bus (aprox. every 30 minutes). The trip lasts less than 1 hour and the ticket costs 6 Euro.
You are strongly advised to consider both directions (Bratislava and Vienna) in order to obtain the best prices for your flight.
Slovakia is a country in Central Europe. Its territory spans about 49,000 square kilometers and its population is mostly comprised of ethnic Slovaks (over 5 million). It is a high-income, advanced economy. The country joined the European Union in 2004, and is a member of the Schengen Area, NATO and the United Nations.
Slovakia is a modern country, but it also has its ancient history: the northernmost border of the Roman Empire touched upon its territory. Throughout history, many nations have wandered through the Slovak valleys, between the mountains, searching for their place on the continent. Each of them has left its trace here.
The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries. In the 10th century, the territory was integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary, which later became the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Slovaks and Czechs established Czechoslovakia. Slovakia became an independent state on January 1st, 1993, after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
Slovakia offers tourists, the whole year long, its attractions, historical sights, untouched natural nooks, comfortable tourist centers, various forms of cultural entertainment and especially the hospitality of its inhabitants. Experts say that the sea is the only internationally recognized attraction that Slovakia lacks.
The Slovak Republic lies in the mild zone with a continental climate and a distinctive rotation of seasons. The average daily temperature is -2 °C in winter and 21 °C in summer. The coldest month is January, and the warmest months are July and August. On average, the snow remains up in the highest locations 130 days a year.
|Bratislava Climate chart|
The capital city of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava, is one of the youngest capital cities in the world. With a population of almost 500,000 people, it is the country’s largest city. Today it is the political, economic, cultural, scientific and social hub of Slovakia. Bordering Austria and Hungary, it is the only national capital that borders two independent countries.
The city lies at the foot of the Small Carpathian Mountain Range, occupying both banks of the Danube River and the left bank of the Morava River.
The Danube, the second longest European river and European waterway was also the birthplace of the first settlement in Bratislava, and the river served as a thoroughfare for nations, as well as for cultural trends. Its suitable geographic position was a pre-determining factor for Bratislava’s famous past and present.
Bratislava streets are brimming with the history of a medieval city. You can still feel the unique atmosphere of the days when Bratislava was the coronation seat of the Hungarian King.
Looking up from the banks of the Danube River, you will be charmed by the majesty of Bratislava Castle, which bears features of several architectural styles. Today, the historic centre contains a number of beautiful, renovated townhouses in baroque and rococo style, with romantic courtyards, several churches and monasteries, statues and fountains, and old town houses. They form narrow streets and small squares with a special charm of revived history.
The history of the city has been strongly influenced by people of different nations and religions, namely by Austrians, Czechs, Hungarians, Jews, Croats and Slovaks. Over the course of the centuries, it changed its name several times: from the German Pressburg, Latin Possonium, Hungarian Pozsony, to the Slovak folk version Prešporok.
Its proximity to nature gives Slovakia’s capital its strongest flavour. The Danube wends its way through the city, and cycle paths weave through the verdant flood plain that begins just outside the centre.
Meanwhile, the densely forested Small Carpathians are just a 30-minute walk from the train station; the trailer to a foretaste of a mountainous region that covers most of the country, virtually unimpeded by civilisation. Then there are ski runs and vineyards to amble through.
Meanwhile, the metropolis on the Danube River has become a modern city, attracting visitors with a multitude of cultural offerings and shopping centers, as well as international standard hotels, together with a diverse culinary offering. Accept this invitation to Bratislava, with its roots deep in the past, lively present and ambitious outlook to the future.